What is guidewire?

Guidewire is a small-diameter, flexible wire inserted into the body in order to guide larger instruments such as a catheter or feeding tube.

The use of guide wires on humans was first developed by German physician Dr. Werner Forssmann in 1929 for cardiac catheterisation. Since then, guidewires have become smaller, more complex, and made with a variety of materials in order to handle a range of medical operations.

Guidewire composition

Although guidewires have different characteristics, their basic structure includes four parts: core, tip, cover, and coating.

guidewire components

First, Guidewire core:

The core structure is also an important factor affecting the performance of the guidewire: the thicker the core diameter, the better the support, torque transmission and pushability, and the thinner the core, the better the flexibility and tracking, but its support, torque transmission and pushability decline. The short transition section has good support, but the distal shaping section is prone to twisting, sagging, and poor flexibility and handling, while the long transition section has good torque transmission, tracking and controllability, but its support is weakened.

Second, Guidewire tip:

The tip design of the guidewire is the decisive factor in determining the controllability and flexibility of the guidewire tip. At present, there are two main methods: core-to-tip design and shaping ribbon. Meanwhile, The core direct-to-head design has good tactile feedback, pushability and tracking. And It is easy to manipulate and has strong head hardness, which is suitable for high-resistance lesions and stent meshes.

Third, Sheath desgin:

Sheath design is an important factor in guidewire maneuverability and trackability, and determines guidewire visibility. Sheath is divided into coil cover, plastic sheathand polymer sheath. The spring coil sheath design makes the guide wire have better tactile feedback and visibility. But it increases friction.

Fourth, Guidewire Coating:

Guidewire coatings are designed to reduce friction and increase tracking. It includes: hyhilic coating and hyhobic coating. Hydrophilic coating materials are mostly Pro/Pel, Hydro-track, Hydro-coat and M-coatVR, etc. They can attract water molecules to form a smooth gel on the surface of the guidewire. And increasing lubricity and reducing friction. The hydrophobic coating is polytetrafluoroethylene, dihydrofluorescein and silicone resin, etc.. These don’t combine with water and appear waxy on the surface of the guide wire to reduce friction. In addition, they all have the characteristics of stable chemical properties, good biocompatibility and antithrombotic effect.

core to tip and shaping ribbon

Technology development history

The Origin of Guidewire

The development of guidewire from the understanding and practice of coronary artery disease. And the development of guidewire also promotes the diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease. In 1979, Andreas Gruentzig performed the world’s first coronary angioplasty using a balloon. He used a non-invasive guidewire fixed at the tip of the balloon. So it became the first guidewire to be used. However, such guidewires are difficult to navigate through bends, angles, calcifications, bifurcations, and severe eccentric lesions, Then resulting in very low balloon passage rates.

Guidewires with modern significance

In 1982, Simpson invented the guide wire with modern significance. First, the guide wire guides the balloon to the target lesion, thereby improving the passage rate of the balloon, marking the beginning of a new era. In the past thirty years, with coronary artery disease from atherosclerotic plaque stenosis to acute thrombotic occlusive lesions formed by plaque rupture, from complete occlusion of CTO to the discovery of microchannels, guide wires have changed from From general-purpose guide wires with generalized functions to CTO guide wires with specific functions, the diameter of the tip of the guide wire becomes thinner and harder, and new combinations of coatings and sheaths are also formed to meet the different lesions and needs of CTO .

Important Milestones

And also form CTO guide wires for different purposes, such as ultra-smooth guide wire, tip-wrapped guide wire, retrograde guide wire, RG3 guide wire specially designed for establishing externalization, Souh 03 which is more suitable for epicardium or severely tortuous side branches Guide wires and GAIA series guide wires controlled by non-tactile feedback, etc. The tip-wound guidewire is developed from the early hydrophilic coated guidewire, which is suitable for short and straight lesions with branches near the CTO, no stump and severe calcification, and is an important milestone in the history of guidewire development.

CatheterMelt manufactures guidewire tipping machine for zebra guidewire, loach guidewire, TPU guidewire producers. Welcome guidewire manufacturers contact us.  Cathetermelt cm110-3a guidewire can be used for R angle forming process at the distal and proximal ends of medical guidewires.

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